The roof is an important part of the building, which crowns it like an elegant crown. But the roof is also almost the most important functional component of the building project – it must be durable, meet the requirements of operation and not create an unnecessary load on the entire building as a whole. And if the roof is arranged incorrectly, then the house eventually ceases to be suitable for housing. What should you focus on when choosing a project and roof materials? Geometric shape, operational characteristics, roofing material – the list of parameters that you need to pay attention to when choosing a roofing project is not so long, but all these points are equally important.
Variety of forms
The geometry of the roof is dictated by the functional purpose of the cottage under construction and the wishes of the owners. First of all, roofs are divided into pitched and flat. The latter is a mandatory attribute of houses of wealthy people and the dream of many of our compatriots. Unfortunately, the climate does not allow us to build a full-fledged terrace, swimming pool or helipad on the roof, and those who do decide on such architectural masterpieces will have to face very high requirements for waterproofing, cleaning problems and other difficulties of northern latitudes.
In this regard, the most popular projects of houses in our country are with pitched roofs, on which precipitation does not linger for a long time, and, therefore, their tightness is much higher. Here there are many options, each of which satisfies one or another need. So, a single-pitched roof is mainly used for outbuildings: sheds, garages, baths. It is easy to build, and rain and snow will flow only in one direction. A gable roof is usually used for residential buildings (the attic under it is more often used for economic purposes). And lovers of attic rooms prefer broken roofs, which consist of two slopes on each side, mounted at different angles. This makes it possible to expand the room to make, for example, a full-fledged bedroom there.
More than four scats have multi-gable roofs. The need for them is due to architectural difficulties: variable stories, asymmetry of the building and other functional features. Dome and spire structures are used most rarely in low-rise residential construction. Each type of roof differs in the number of necessary materials for its construction, as well as the design of the rafter system.
We set priorities
The roof, more than all other parts of the building, is exposed to natural factors, which are aggravated by some anthropogenic influences. She has to withstand rain, wind, snow, meltwater, sun, constant temperature changes, and steam. The roof should also protect against increased noise and be as safe as possible in operation.
Even though the aesthetic appeal of the roof has an undoubted influence on the choice of the entire structure and finishing materials, it is necessary to pay more attention to the operational characteristics of this part of the building. The most important parameters are strength, high-quality heat and sound insulation, vapor and moisture resistance, environmental friendliness and safety.
It must be remembered that the greatest load on the roof occurs in winter (due to the high-temperature difference and humidity level outside and inside the house). Based on this, the material suitable for this area is selected. And, choosing between beauty and durability, it is probably better to choose favor of the latter, because the house is built for more than a dozen years. But since problems arise in any, even the most well-thought-out design, it is important to notice them in time. Yes, the rafters can crack, which requires a more thorough inspection of the roof – it may need major repairs. Since the structures are constantly exposed to moisture, steam, and temperature changes, there is a high probability of fungi. You can notice this in the changed color of the beams and changes in geometry. Special antifungal mixtures and solutions cope well with this problem. The protective layer of the roof can shift or receive mechanical damage, as a result of which leaks will form during rain and wet marks will appear. Timely elimination of such manifestations will avoid the repair of the interior decoration of the room.
The roof is a multi-layered structure, each layer of which has certain operational problems. Installation begins with the laying of a support beam, which is called a “Mauer last”. Rafters are installed on it and a waterproofing film is laid. It allows vapors to leave the room, but does not allow moisture from the street into the thermal insulation layer. Then, a crate bar is placed perpendicular to the rafters, as a result of which an air gap is formed between the roofing material and the waterproofing layer, which also contributes to the removal of excess moisture.
Some materials require a solid batten, such as soft bituminous roofing, reed or sheet steel. In this case, no beams are used, but OSP boards or moisture-resistant plywood. Then there is the fastening of the roofing material, the features of which depend directly on the chosen option. Before buying, it is necessary to determine the total area of the entire roof, including bends and overhangs. For complex architectural solutions, it is better to use flexible tiles, which will reduce the amount of waste.
When the external work is finished, you can proceed to the insulation of the roof from the inside. Between the rafters it is necessary to lay the insulation very tightly, and on its inner side to provide a vapor barrier (usually reinforced polyethylene is used for this). The most difficult places during the installation of all layers are, of course, windows, risers and heating pipes. It is necessary to pay enough attention to their waterproofing, vapor barrier and insulation, so that in cold weather the heat does not disappear through poor-quality joints.
As for the flat roof, its base must be rigid, otherwise the waterproofing may be broken, which will lead to constant leaks. A concrete screed or, for example, corrugated board is suitable for the foundation. Flat roof insulation must have high compressive strength, as it will be constantly subjected to loads. In addition, to solve problems with waterproofing on these types of roofs, aerators are used – structures made of pipes of different diameters, which allow excess steam to be removed due to the pressure difference.
How to hide?
Among the variety of roofing materials, metal tiles are the most popular . It is made of galvanized steel, protected on both sides by a polymer coating. The main advantages are economy, lightness, resistance to external influences, aesthetics. Such tiles are inexpensive, and their service life is very long, which is especially attractive in the long term. The lightness of the material makes it easier to ensure its installation and transportation, and also reduces the load on the foundation.
The metal tile is used in different climatic zones, it is resistant to natural phenomena, and mechanical damage is easily eliminated by replacing the damaged segment. And finally, very favorable material for an architect. In addition to the variety of colors, it also allows you to choose different configuration options.
There are two downsides to this option: large losses when installing complex roofs and weak noise insulation. Therefore, it is best to use such tiles for simple roofs, and the second problem will be solved by an appropriate lining.
When buying, it is important to pay attention to the quality of the material, since unscrupulous manufacturers, to save money, often reduce the thickness of the product, the number of layers of polymer coating and do not use a primer. All this will lead to the fact that the roof made of metal tiles will lose its presentable appearance after a couple of years, fade and become covered with rust.
The second popular material is ceramic tiles . This is the most ecological version of the coating, in addition, it has low thermal conductivity (the house will not heat up quickly in the heat), has good vapor permeability (eliminates dampness) and perfectly absorbs noise. In addition, ceramic tiles are fire-resistant and durable – their service life is more than 100 years. The problem with this material is its heavy weight: 40-70 kg per 1 square meter, so during installation it is necessary to additionally strengthen the entire structure. Cement-sand and polymer-sand tiles are similar in properties, but lighter in weight, and can become a worthy substitute for ceramic tiles.
The third option is bitumen tiles . Lovers of architectural extravagances will be pleased with such a flexible tile with a large number of colors and ease of use on various curved surfaces. As for functionality, it is not as durable as the previous ones, but it has good water resistance and tightness of the joints. A roof with such tiles is practically silent and cannot be compared to any other option during the rain. Bituminous roof tiles do not fade or rust, but they cannot be subjected to minor repairs: since the sheets are fused, a significant piece has to be changed, and sometimes the entire slope as a whole.
Among the less popular varieties of roofing materials is metal sheet roofing, which is used mainly for commercial buildings: it is cheap, durable, but has poor sound insulation. Natural materials – reeds, turf, wood chips – are often used to attract attention to the construction, but they are short-lived and fire-hazardous. This material is made by hand (it is quite heavy).
In general, when choosing a suitable material, it is better to focus on the first three types, which have already firmly established themselves on the market.
Finally, siding contractors in kc will emphasize once again: for house projects to turn into realized dreams, do not succumb to temptation when choosing the shape of the roof. In order not to be left with rusty sheets or the need to constantly cover large areas after several years of operation in the pursuit of effectiveness, you proceed from the durability, quality and efficiency of the construction itself and roofing materials. And then a strong roof over your head is guaranteed for many years!